News, books, and videos:

Substance use problems and addiction

 

Substance-related problems refer to excessive use of alcohol or other drugs to the extent that it negatively affects life. Addiction refer to intense focus on using a certain substance, such as alcohol or drugs, to the point that it takes over their life.

 


Photo: by Mikail Duran on Unsplash

What are substance-related problems?

There will be differing views on when the use of drugs and addictive drugs is a problem. From a child and family perspective, it is a problem "when the use of drugs has a disruptive effect on the tasks and functions that are to be taken care of in the family when the emotional ties between people are strained and disturbed by a party's use of drugs".

The medical definition of substance abuse is that at least three of the following descriptions are true (ICD-10):

 

  1. Strong desire or feeling of compulsion to take the drug
  2. Problems with controlling intake with respect to to start, to stop and how much to take
  3. Physiological abstinence, ie when the drug intake ceases or decreases, the person gets bodily withdrawal symptoms which are relieved by continued intake.
  4. Development of tolerance, so that increased amounts are needed to have the same effect.
  5. Increasing indifference to other joys or interests.
  6. Drug use continues despite obvious signs of harmful consequences for health and relationships

The medical definition of harmful drug use is as follows (ICD-10): 

A pattern of use that causes physical or mental damage, and that the damage is clearly demonstrable. Duration at least 1 month or repeatedly within 1 year.

 

What is drug addiction

The term drug addiction covers both an addiction to legal drugs, illegal drugs and alcohol. An addiction to a drug is characterized by, among other things, a lack of control, a strong or compulsive desire to take the drug, abstinence and continued use of the drug despite the fact that it clearly has major negative effects on one's own life and health.

Drug addiction can be both physical and mental, or a combination of the two. When the drug addiction is physical, the addict will experience physical pain in the form of abstinence when he or she stays away from the drug. If the addiction is mental, the addict may feel that intoxication is more important than anything else and that it is impossible to stay away from the drug because it is the only thing he or she wants to do. As a rule, a drug addiction will be both physical and mental. When the body is no longer physically dependent on the substance in question, the mental dependence will probably last much longer. 

 

Addiction is a complex problem

Rustelefonen writes:

Drug addiction is a complex problem that can consist of both physical and mental factors. The physical addiction may be that an addict feels sick if he stops taking a certain drug (abstinence), and the mental addiction may be that the addict is so eager to intoxicate that it overshadows everything else.

When someone develops drug addiction, they may feel that they are losing control of their choices. Intoxication can be perceived as more important than anything else, therefore addiction can be understood as a type of "coercion" where the user is unable to reduce the abuse, even though they know that it harms them both physically and mentally. 

 

Addiction is not an absence of free will

It has been common to think of a drug addict as a person without free will. It is not true. Substance abuse does not deprive the individual of the ability to think and act of his own free will, but makes it more difficult to choose other alternatives over intoxication. 

 

Psychological vulnerability to drug addiction

Eline Borger Rognli writes in Utposten (a Norwegian publication for GPs):

To understand why vulnerable individuals choose to seek relief through intoxication, it may be helpful to gain some knowledge from developmental psychology and cognitive psychology. The individual develops through interaction with the environment, especially with close caregivers. After repeated interactions on the same topic, understanding and expectations of oneself, others, and the world in general are developed.

In the group of patients who are addicted to heavier drugs, there are many people with negative basic assumptions. These basic assumptions have often emerged as a psychologically rational and appropriate adaptation to a dysfunctional environment.

A common emotional consequence of such basic assumptions is shame. In many cases, it can be helpful to understand irritability, frustration, and anger as the patient's defense against feeling ashamed. Often, drug patients - as a result of difficult upbringing conditions and brutal drug environments - have an activated and powerful defense. This can arouse negative feelings in the helpers, who may become exhausted and tired. We often describe these patients as "difficult" and "relationship damaged".

 

Some have an additional biological vulnerability to addiction

In a TED talk video tells Nina Volwkow about addiction

Both obesity and substance abuse problems have been stigmatized as a moral failure associated with a lack of self-control in people with such problems, according to Nora Volkow. It's problematic the way she sees it.

- I have never met an addicted person who wanted to be addicted. And I have never met an overweight person who wanted to be overweight.

- Can you imagine what it is like to want to stop something, and not be able to? You try and you fail, and you try again and you fail again, and again. And you begin to hate yourself for not being able to keep track of yourself.

- Simply put, it's like driving a car without brakes. No matter how much you want to stop, you will not be able to, Nora Volklow explains.

 

Drugs may hijack the brain's motivational system

A slightly different and more social perspective on addiction is given by Sverre Nesvåg who tells = Oslo:

The problem is not that you like intoxication. Everyone can do that. The description of the heroin's effect sounds great to me. The equation does not increase with dependence. On the contrary, the good feeling becomes less and less. What is increasing is the unconscious urge: "Just have to have it!"

He emphasizes that drug addiction is about much more than the purely physical urge to take a drug:

What characterizes the addict is a lock in very few subject positions. That is, few ways to define themselves, few roles they can play in society. In the end, there may be only one: "I'm a drug addict."

It also happens that the drugs hijack the brain's motivational system. Intoxication becomes not only a problem, but also a solution - in fact the solution to most things. "Intoxication is the answer to all questions."

 

Prevention and treatment of substance abuse problems and addiction

Prevention and treatment of substance abuse problems is a large and comprehensive field. It includes a wide range of initiatives both at the societal level, in various growth arenas, and in relation to access to and the quality of relevant assistance services. In this article, this topic will only be outlined very briefly.

Nina Volkow recommends that we emphasize the prevention of both drug-related problems and obesity by offering real alternatives and opportunities to people who are vulnerable to either drug or overeating problems. 

- Our challenge is not to know how to prevent, but to put it into action. It's about offering real alternatives and opportunities. For example, why can we not offer healthy food? Why can we not establish environments that stimulate - instead of hinder - physical activity?

An important message is that one must stop looking at drug addiction as a physical illness, and to bring out perspectives that can help explain the meaning behind the addiction.

It is important to prevent loneliness and exclusion among young people. A number of measures can also be useful in preventive work, and the measures in Iceland are a good example.

Cite this article

 

Feel free to use information from this article on your website, but remember to add a link.

 

Written by

ove heradstveit

Ove Heradstveit

Psychologist, specialist in clinical community psychology. PhD.
 Facebook -  Twitter -  Scholar
- Helpseeker.net 

Read more about substance use